Perspectives: do the authors state clearly the viewpoint they are taking?
Opinions: academic articles will often present unsubstantiated theories
for debate. Look out for opinion presented as if it were fact.
Language: can be a useful danger sign. Look out for language which is
either emotionally charged or vague.
Sponsorship: academic research may be sponsored by industry
(e.g. pharmaceutical companies). This does not necessarily make the research less objective
but it may make its interpretation selective. Make sure that all potential vested interests
are clearly identified and that the sponsors are happy to give access to the actual research data.
Adapted from the Open University's SAFARI tutorial by Cardiff
University, with permission from the Open University Library.