Aims of this tutorial
How to use the tutorial
What is citing and referencing?
Why is it important to cite references?
When should I cite?
Citing using the Harvard Style
Activity 1: Citing in the text
How to quote
List of references
Chapter in an edited book
Electronic journal article
Activity 2: Compile the references
Final words of advice
References should be given for "all direct or indirect quotations,
and in acknowledgement of someone's opinions, or of a source of factual information which
is not general knowledge" (Walliman 2001, p. 301).
Li and Crane (1996, p. 3) point out that the main
objective of citing references is to give sufficient information to allow sources to be
located. Additionally, "another important principle is to make reference to that information
in the source in hand. As a rule, it is not necessary to provide supplementary
information that has to be located elsewhere" (Li and Crane 1996,
p. 3). General overviews of the process of citing references are given by
Bosworth (1992) and Craig (2003) and in
Walliman, Chapter 8 (2001, pp. 300-313).
Bosworth, D.P. 1992. Citing your references: a guide for authors of journal articles
and students writing theses or dissertations. Thirsk, N Yorks: Underhill Press.
Craig, P. 2003. How to cite. Documentation Studies 10(1), pp. 114-122.
Li, X. and Crane, N. B. 1996. Electronic styles: a handbook for citing electronic information.
2nd ed. Medford, New Jersey: Information Today.
Walliman, N. 2001. Your research project: a step-by-step guide for the first-time researcher.