Harvard Referencing Tutorial

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Aims of this tutorial
How to use the tutorial
What is citing and referencing?
An example
Why is it important to cite references?
When should I cite?
Citing using the Harvard Style
Multiple authors
Activity 1: Citing in the text
Quotations
How to quote
List of references
Book
Chapter in an edited book
Journal article
Electronic journal article
Web document
Activity 2: Compile the references
Final words of advice
FAQs

How to quote

When you are quoting another person word for word you should distinguish their words from your own writing. You must also include the page number containing the quote in the citation.

For a short quote, enclose the writer's words in double "quotation marks" within your sentence:

Key causes of economic deprivation include low income or unemployment which are often the result of "poor qualification levels and lack of basic skills" (Thake and Saubach 1993, p.18).

Longer quotes should be separated from the body of your text and indented from the left-hand margin. In this case you do not need to use quotation marks:

Charles Dicken' novel Bleak House opens with the following description to set the scene for his story:
London, Michaelmas term lately over, and the Lord Chancellor sitting in Lincoln's Inn Hall. Implacable November weather. As much mud in the streets as if the water had but newly retired from the face of the earth, and it would not be wonderful to meet a Megalosaurus, forty feet long or so, waddling like an elephantine lizard up Holborn Hill (Dickens 1853, p. 1).
The tone of this passage gives a detatched, non-committal account of the dreary winter scene...

If you need to leave out some words from the quote replace them with ... (three dots). To insert your own words into the quote to ensure it makes grammatical sense in your work, write your words in [square brackets] to distinguish them from the author's.

In both cases be careful not to alter the meaning of the quote by removing or adding too many words.

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Created by University Library Service, Cardiff University

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