Citing the law

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Citing the law
Why do I need to cite?
Activity: When to cite?
Inserting footnotes
Case law
Activity: Which report do I cite?
EU cases
ECHR cases
Welsh legislation
Scottish legislation
Northern Ireland legislation
EU legislation
Edited books and encyclopedias
Journal articles
Electronic journal articles
Government publications
Newspaper articles
Websites and blogs
Activity: Putting it all together
FAQs and notes

Cite UK cases as follows:

Illustration of citing a case

All judgments in the High Court and above are now assigned a unique “neutral citation” by the court which helps identify cases which have been published on the Internet even when they have not been reported in a law report series. For example:

Illustration of a neutral citation

Add the neutral citation immediately after the names of the parties and before the law report citation (if there is one). There is no need to note the court as this is indicated in the neutral citation.


Use round brackets if the year is not needed to identify the correct volume, for example (2003) 167 JP 621. If in doubt which to use, hide the date with your finger and ask yourself whether you could still find the report in the library. If you can, then use round brackets; if not, use square brackets.
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Created by University Library Service, Cardiff University

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